Adapter – Protects your piece from heat damage and comes in different angles, sizes, and sex (male or femal
Angle-Cut Banger – (?) See “Flat-Top”
Ashcatcher – A device attachment that can go in between a tube’s slide and downstem. It has a small water chamber used to filter smoke and prevent any ash from getting into the actual pipe.
Ash Catcher – See “Ashcatcher”
Atomizer – A vaporizer’s heating element that converts liquids to vapors for better inhaling experience.
Aventurine – A shimmery green quartz
Aventurine Glass – Blown to replicate a shimmery gem with translucent glass bearing sparkings of gold, copper, chromic oxide, mica, and more.
Bake On – A type of adhesive that helps bond pieces together.
Ball Perc – Smoke is diffused out of the spherical shapes inside the rig or waterpipe with holes.
Banger – A loading attachment component typically made from quartz used solely for smoking concentrates in rigs that must be heated with a blowtorch before the concentrate can be loaded and smoked. Also see “Nail”
Banger Hanger – A device with a bent neck used for hanging a banger that helps prevent heat stress to the vapor rig and joint, and avoid getting hot air into the consumer’s face.
Banger Nail – A device featured with a curved glass tube that fits over the male joint on a rig to prevent cracking and heat stress.
Barrel Perc – A type of percolator that can be used vertically or horizontally within the chamber and allows greater diffusion with multiple notches.
Basket Weave – A glass blowing technique in which separate pieces are woven and fused together, resulting in a beautiful pattern of contrasting parallel lines woven together.
Bead Release – A type of liquid that mandrels are dipped in repeatedly to prevent sticking and be reused.
Beach Ball – Linework reversed balled.
Beaker – The literal shape of a waterpipe modeled after laboratory beakers.
Beaker Bong – A beaker-shaped base in a smoking device.
Bell Perc – Bell-shaped segments of glass within the waterpipe chamber that slits along the bottom of the bell to provide diffusion and filtration.
Beveled – A glass with edges cut and polished to a specific angle and size to produce a specific elegant look.
Binary Bangers – Handmade devices made to order from Quave Club Bangers using domestic quarts.
Bistabil – A 2.8mm joint that is 52% thicker than the standard where the down stem slides into the tube.
Bong – A large water pipe smoking device with a mouthpiece that allows a consumer’s lips to go inside. Also see “Waterpipe”
Bore – Refers to the thickness of the glass and also describes the diameter of the tube on a waterpipe or rig. Common sizes are 10mm, 14/15mm, and 18/19mm.
Boro – See “Borosilicate”
Boro Head – A person who is highly knowledgeable in the most up-to-date and upcoming techniques as well as fads in the glass industry.
Borosilicate – Standard glassblowing thermal shock resistant material made with 15% boron trioxide and can withstand extreme temperature changes.
Bowl – A removable bowl or slide of a waterpipe that is loaded with flowers and placed into the down stem of a glass joint to be combusted and inhaled. Also see “Slide”
Bowtie – A specific line work technique that creates a pattern similar to a bow tie.
Brickstack Perc – A specific type of percolator designed and used by Leisure Glass that features layered glass “bricks” and provides smooth hits.
Brush Plating – A technique using a solution on the tip of a brush along with a negative charge for patching worn spots on existing plating that requires direct current and small amounts of silver. Also see “Electroforming”
Bubble Cap – ?
Bubbler – A hand pipe that comes in several shapes and designs consisting of a bowl, down stem, water chamber, and mouthpiece.
Bushing Diffuser – A glass on glass down stem that reduces the normal joint size to a smaller one and eliminates the need for a bubble between the joints on a down stem.
Butane – An overall base chemical and quality that are easily subjective.
Buttato – Concave in carving.
Button Bowl – A gong slide with four holes on the bottom that creates an increased airflow.
Cane – A colored length of glass with simple or complex designs that are further worked by the glassblower into some aspect of a piece.
Caneworking – “The process of making or adding intricate designs of a cane to other glass objects. Also see “Cane”
Cannabidiol – “See CBD”
Carb – A hole on the side of a hand pipe responsible for airflow regulation. Also see “Carb Hole”
Carb Cap – A cap placed on top of a domeless nail or vapor dome that helps retain its temperature to evenly burn the concentrates.
Carb Hole – A small hole on the side of a dry glass pipe and some waterpipes that helps clear smoke out of the chamber for better airflow. Also see “Carb”
Carbon Filter – A small piece of glass placed between the slide and downstem containing a sphere that is filled with carbon rock used to filter the smoke even further.
Carburetor – See “Carb” and “Carb Hole”
Carving Glass – “Similar to sandblasting, but done with a different and less mechanized set of tools or by hand. Also see “Sandblasting”
CBD (Cannabidiol) – The non-psychoactive second primary compound that occurs naturally in the cannabis plant that has been scientifically proven to be medically significant for managing symptoms in a number of different diagnoses.
Ceramic Nail – A type of nail that produces a clean hit resulting in smooth flavor profiles and is also resistant to getting chazzed, making them easy to clean and maintain over a long period of time.
CFL Glass (Compact Fluorescent Light) – Refers specifically to a type of glass created by Glass Alchemy Labs in 2015 that changes colors when put under fluorescent light.
Chazz – See “Devitrification”
Chillum – A small and cylindrical tube pipe usually made of “worked” glass that has a larger bowl area allowing for more bud to be packed.
Chip Stack – ?
Choke – See “Carb” and “Carb Hole”
Chubbler Bubbler – ?
Circle (Circ) Perc – Puck-shaped percs with rounded edges and slits around the outside attached at the bottom of a downstem.
Coefficient of Expansion (COE) – Describes how much each type of glass expands depending on the temperature.
Coil Perc – See “Spiral”
Coil Potting – A hollow glass structure at the end of a blow tube that can be blown outward into a section. Also see “Encalmo”
Cold Working – See “Coldworking”
Coldworking – Three distinctive methods using different tools of working on glass without heat involved.
Collab – A piece of work designed and created by two or more artists.
Collins Perc – Usually encased within beaker glass pipes that have a fixed stem providing a noticeable chug when inhaling and do not require the traditional down stem.
Color Bar – Comes in different colors, the concentrated bars are the most common way of adding color to furnace glass pieces.
Color Compatibility – Measurement of how well each type of color glass works or binds together. Incompatibility will result in cracking, shattering, or appearance of silvered lines.
Color Pulling – Pulling color to achieve a clean color overlay during cold weather.
Colors – Glass colors.
Compact Fluorescent Light – See “CFL Glass”
Concentrate Rig (aka “concentrate pipe” or “dab rig”) – A smoking device with male joints and vapor dome or nails that allows a consumer to smoke concentrates.
Cone – Cone-shaped papers that are pre-rolled for filling in a consumer’s own grinded herbs.
Cooling Fiber Blanket – Can be used on its own or added to kilns for extra insulation to cool finished beads.
Cotton Swab Holders + Iso Vials – See “Iso Vials + Cotton Swab Holders”
Cropal – See “Crushed Opal”
Cross Perc – Features cross-shaped tubes that branch off from the center and allow for airflow and prevent splashback.
Crosshatch – A type of punch coined by HiSi Glass which consists of two perpendicular slits that cross at the center and allows for increased airflow.
Crown(ed) – A continuous pattern consisting of a style that shows marbles or colors being fused around the circumference of the bowl or mouthpiece.
Crushed Opal (Cropal) – A crushed opal that shows transparent and glitter-like effects.
Crystal Ball Perc – An all-in-one percolator that is a hybrid of UFO, turbine, and ball in the center, which serves as a great additional filter and creates dynamic smoke filtration.
D-Cut – A diffuser with a specific pattern of diamond cuts where small slits are made at the bottom on the end of the down stem in a waterpipe or bubbler.
Dab Rig – An apparatus designed for dabbing concentrates.
Dabber – A tool to scoop up concentrates for vaporization on a hot nail.
Dabber Cap – ?
Devitrification (aka Chazz) – When properties of the quartz nail/banger are permanently altered due to improper cleaning and maintenance techniques.
Dewar Seal – ?
Diamond Knot Nail – Often produced from quartz, this crown-shaped fixture functions as a capless nail and is better for smaller dabs.
Dichro – A term glassblowing artists often use to refer to dichroic glass.
Also see “Dichroic” and “Dichroic Glass”
Dichroic – A modern composite of non-translucent glass that is produced by stacking layers of metal oxides causing colors to be displayed and resulting in being used for decorative purposes.
Dichroic Color – See “Dichroic” and “Dichroic Glass”
Dichroic Glass – A beautiful and shimmering glass that changes color depending on which angle you view it from.
Diffused Downstem – See “Diffused Downstem Perc”
Diffused Downstem Perc – A down stem with slits or piercings that helps diffuse smoke allowing for smoother and cleaner experience, and is considered as the most common type of percolator.
Diffuser – See “Diffused Downstem Perc” and “Diffusion”
Diffusion – A smoother smoking experience by having water flow through the percolator and bubble up.
Directional Cap – ?
Disc – See “Shower Head Downstem Diffuser”
Disc Perc – Flat cylindrical percolators with multiple slits and are well known for excellent diffusion.
Dome – A piece that goes over the dab nail and has a female joint to help vapors get trapped and flow through the bubbler joint.
Dome Perc – See “Tree”
Domed Nail – A nail that comes with a glass enclosure around the nail to retain the smoke from the concentrate and is utilized to produce intensified flavor profiles from the concentrate, preventing the consumer from getting burnt.
Domeless Nail – A nail that has no dome accessory provided and can be used with or without a dome carb cap.
Donut Perc – A donut-shaped percolator with a single hole through the center that allows water to flow through and around to increase diffusion and prevent splashback.
Dot Boxing – Repetitive Linework or pattern featuring checkered patterns.
Dot Stack & Dot Stacking – A technique where, depending on how the original color dots are placed, are layered over one another and slowly melted into place to create many possible designs.
Double – Slang term referring to tubes with two chambers.
Downstem – A glass cylinder placed inside the joint of a waterpipe that directs airflow into the water for filtration.
Dr. Dabber: Switch – An E-Nail Brand we recommend: A revolutionary, patent-pending induction heating vaporizer for both oils and flowers. Also see “Electronic Nail (E-Nail or eNail)”
Drain – A tool placed in the vat to allow a continuous stream of molten glass to be drawn out.
Drain Bowl – A type of punch by HiSi Glass that has up to ten small holes for airflow and pull.
Drawing – See “Flip”
Drop – See “Release”
Dry Piece – A smoking device that does not use water filtration and comes in a variety of designs, shapes, and sizes.
Dry Pipe – See “Dry Piece”
Dugout – A compact all-in-one apparatus that has two small chambers made from metal or wood to store grounded dry herbs and a bat.
Electroforming (now less popular) – A technique that involves an electrolytic solution and an electric power supply to electroform by tank or brush plating.
Electronic Nail (E-Nail or eNail) – A vaporizing device that is powered electronically and is digitally temperature-controlled.
Encalmo – A glass blowing technique that involves fusing two separate sections of glass together by opening the bubbles on each end and fusing them together in the flame.
Faberge Egg Perc – A type of percolator that is more focused on decorative effect and needs to be paired in close proximity to another percolator in order to function properly and create diffusion.
Faceting – An overarching glass technique that creates faceted accents and is more commonly seen in glass marbles than heady rigs.
Fillacello – A hybrid-tech process in which rough latticini are created and the spaces are filled in with different colors of glass or opals, resulting in a stained-glass effect with captivating detail.
Filter / Screen – An insert made with glass or metal that helps keep the pipe clean.
Fixed Downstem – A piece that features a built-in downstem that cannot be removed and the only opening is for the slide.
Flame Cut – See “Flame Polished”
Flame Polished – The process of cutting a logo or image onto a glass piece.
Flat Top Banger – Bangers where the top cut runs parallel to the bottom of the banger with edges that are tapered specially to help bubble caps sit securely in place. See “Angle-Cut Bangers””
Flip – A technique in which artists use thin colored glass stringers, which are carefully heated and laid on a piece of clear glass, then they are cut out, producing the image on the opposite or “flip” side.
Flameworking – A glass blowing technique that forms objects from glass rods and tubes that can be manipulated while in a heated and soft state.
Flowers – Another term for dry herbs or the substance that is put inside a bowl to be smoked.
Frit – Colored glass that is grounded up coarsely to different consistencies.
Frit Bonding – A technique that seals grounded up colored glass to a larger glass tube being worked on, producing a pattern of many different colors blended together.
Fritted Disc Perc – A percolator that is widely regarded as the strongest perc on the market, known for making hundreds of bubbles as it diffuses smoke into a satisfyingly clean hit.
Fumed Work (Silver and Gold) – See “Fuming”
Fuming – A glassblowing technique that involves encasing the glass around fumes created by heating metal elements.
G Pen: Connect – A new-fashioned alternative to conventional concentrate consumption that heats to temperature within five seconds of activation to deliver high-density, quality vapor production without the hassle of a torch and exposed nail. Also see “Electronic Nail (E-Nail or eNail)””
Geyser Perc – A percolator from HiSi brand that uses a textured surface to shoot water and smoke up within the chamber.
Gil Perc – ?
Glass Alchemy – The lab where CFL glass was first researched, produced, and later sold.
Glass Blunt – A straight hollow glass pipe with another hollow tube as a mouthpiece.
Glass on Glass (GonG) – “Refers to the style of joining various pieces of a waterpipe or bubbler using a ground glass joint, providing a superior seal to rubber grommets. Also see “Joint””
Glass Rods – Clear or colored solid glass rods that glassblowers often blow into tubes and are worked in other ways.
Glass Screen – Small pieces of glass or metal that act as a stopper for slides with large punches while still providing flow.
Glass Stringers – ?
Glass Tubes / Tubing – Glass tubes that glassblowers use to begin developing a piece or to layer in for a different technique.
GonG – See “Glass on Glass” and “Joint”
Gong Slide – Refers to a slide that has a gong shaped cylinder below the push for convenient handling.
Grinder – A container tool in which herbs are grinded into smaller pieces for smoking purposes.
Halo Perc – Typically exist in a ring shape where smoke is pushed through several holes placed around the ring for efficient diffusion.
Hammer – See “Hammer Pipe”
Hammer Bubbler – 
Hammer Pipe – A hammer-shaped pipe.
Hand Pipe – A compact and portable glass pipe that fits in most hands and does not need water filtration.
Headshop – A term to describe a retail store specializing in the sale of smoking devices and smoking related items.
Heady – A term used to describe smoking devices that are unique in design and visual presentation.
Heady Glass – A term used to describe rigs and waterpipes that showcases complex glassblowing techniques with high levels of artistry.
Heat Expansion Coefficients – See “Coefficient of Expansion (COE)”
Hemp – A substance produced from the stalks and stems of a well known plant.
Highly Educated (HE) – One of the first companies to focus exclusively on titanium concentrate accessories such as their state-of-the-art titanium nail.
Honey Bucket – Bangers that enable enhanced airflow and can be used to combine flower and concentrate hits in one rip.
Honeycomb – A glassblowing design technique that mimics honeycombs and is often seen in decorative aspects of waterpipes.
Honeycomb Perc – A type of percolator that can lay horizontally and takes up very little space inside a waterpipe with room for more percolators in different chambers.
Horns – An extraneous pointed glass shape, resembling a horn, commonly seen on heady rigs and flower slides.
Hyer Big-E™ Rig – A patent pending, non-porous, quartz glass vaporization element docking station with elastomeric traction grips a smoking device securely and electrifies it.
Ice Pinches – Three or four convex pinches in the straight part of a tube for trapping and allowing ice to fill the tube without falling into the water, hence, creating a colder, smoother hit.
Implosion – A type of glassblowing design technique created by pushing color inside a clear glass.
Incalmo – See “Encalmo”
Incyclers – A smoking device, particularly a waterpipe with a small tube that goes up to the mouthpiece and a small tube that goes down into the water.
Inline Bubbler – See “Inline Perc”
Inline Perc – Typically seen in the bottom chambers of a waterpipe or rig that consists of a horizontal stem with many slits for extra percolation.
Inset Perc – An additional diffusion chamber inside the main chamber that produces a smooth and cool hit.
Inside Out – ?
Iso Vials + Cotton Swab Holders – It is recommended to use cotton swabs or Glob Mops and isopropyl alcohol to frequently clean a heady rig and luxury banger for dabbing.
Jammer – Straightforward functional heady rigs that are less than 12 inches tall and are typically bottle-shaped providing clean tasting hits.
Jellyfish Perc – A variation of a downward-facing sprinkler percolator where the design is altered to literally resemble a jellyfish, with the sprinkler tubes acting as the jellyfish tentacles.
Joint – The locations in which separate and movable parts of a waterpipe or rig connects.
Joint, Female – Refers to a joint that slides over the surface of the attaching joint. Also see “Joint” and “Glass on Glass”
Joint, Male – Refers to a joint that is inserted inside another joint. Also see “Joint” and “Glass on Glass”
Incalmo – Means “graft” in Venetian. Also see “Encalmo”
Keck Clip – A small plastic or pliable metal clip that is used to secure a downstem to the tube to prevent it from getting pulled out when removing the slide.
Kiln – Large ovens used to cool the glass slowly down to room temperature. Also known as an annealer.
Kiln Forming – The process of shaping or fusing glass in a kiln.
Kiln Glass – Glass formed in a kiln, assuming the shape of the surface they are resting upon or within.
Kinetic Glass – Glass pieces that spin or move with air, water, or touch.
Klein/Klein Recyclers – Smoking devices that utilize the famous shape in its function as a recycler.
Laddechello – Gasp one’s retichello ladder?
Laddechino – Spiral ladder cane
Lampworking – See “Flameworking”
Lampworking Torch – A small torch that can be attached to a source of fuel.
Lathe – A device that holds and rotates glass during the fabrication process to provide a range of manipulation, size, and accuracy.
Latheworking – Machine engraving or a surface engraved by a machine?
Lathe-made – A term that describes a piece was mostly made with a lathe.
Latticino – A glassblowing technique that twists colored or clear glass tubes into ribbon-like pattern designs.
Latticino Glass – A term that describes small colored pieces or stringers that are layered onto a colored or clear glass tube, then heated and twisted, giving latticino pieces their signature ribbon-like design.
Lineup – ?
Linework – The process of adding and manipulating colored glass tubes onto a waterpipe while it is being made.

Malachite – ?
Mandrels – Tools that come in a variety of sizes allowing hot glass to be wrapped around for making beads.
Marving Plates – Tools that are typically made of metal to assist with smoothing out glass and eliminating lumps or bumps.
Matrix / Stereo Matrix Perc – Known for their efficiency from stacked disks with cubelike slits, these percolators cause less drag and add more diffusion and are usually used for concentrates.
Milfiore – See “Milli”
Millefiori – See “Milli”
Milli – The images and patterns of this style are cut up and mass produced to be added into pieces.
Millie Chips – See “Milli”
Millie Glass – Images and small glass chips made with colored glass using a unique technique are cut and incorporated into a glass pipe resulting in flower-like patterns.
Millies – See “Milli”
Mini Rigs (Nanotubes) – Mini functional rigs can be as short as 2-4 inches and fit easily in the palm of your hand.
Mini-Tube – A smaller size bong.
Molten Aura Labs – A company based out of Asheville, NC, whose unique, original borosilicate glass colors have captivated the glass world.
Multi-Layer Linework – Art of linework.
Murraine – See “Milli”
Murrine – See “Milli”
Nail – Made of materials like ceramic, titanium, and glass that have an open circular section heated from the side and requires a different type of carb cap.
Nano-rig – A tiny rig for concentrate or dab.
Nanotubes – See “Mini Rigs”
No Color – Glass that does not have color and is clear or clear with some hints of green or blue.
Opal – Made synthetically, this technique creates glass in a way that is beautiful, eye-catching, and contains sans water content. Also see “Opal Glass”
Opal Glass – Impurities are used to create a milky white glass that is commonly used for decorative or ornamental purposes. Also see “Opal”
Perc – A type of water pipe that makes it easier to inhale. Also see “Percolator”
Percolator – A section of a water pipe that adds an extra layer of smoke filtration to produce more pleasant hits by channeling through a variety of tubes or chambers. Also see “Perc”
Pierced – A diffuser with small holes or circles at the bottom of a down stem.
Pinwheel – A common glassblowing decorative pattern that involves fluid fan shape with a vortex towards the center.
Precious Gem Banger Insert – ?
Propeller Perc – Kinetic percolators that are difficult to make and the carefully engineered airflow results in groups of small glass rods spinning like a propeller.
Puddle – Excess concentrate can easily “puddle” within the dish to reheat your banger in order to fully consume your dab. Also See “Thermal Banger”
PukinBeagle – A small, family-owned shop that has been blowing high-quality quartz products out of Colorado since 2008.
Punch – The air hole in the bottom of a bowl/slide/push.
Punty – A long metal or iron rod tool that glassblowers use to gather molten glass with and hold the piece while the top is being worked on.
Push – The “bowl” part of a bowl or slide where the flower is loaded.
Pyramid / Collins Perc – See “Collins Perc”

Quadchroic – A term that describes four colors with one color shift for both the transmitted color and the reflective color.
Quartz Nail – A type of banger made with quartz that is more affordable and must be maintained routinely.
Rakes & Picks – A small metal rod tool with a bent or straight tip at the end for manipulating hot glass into different shapes and patterns.
Raking – The process of combing linework into hot glass while it’s still in the kiln.
Ratachello – A type of glassblowing pattern technique that involves many lines crossing one another.
Ratchet Perc – A type of percolator that has holes on the outer edges of the disc leaving room in the center for a stem to travel through.
Recycler – A type of smoking device commonly used for dabs, flowers, wax, and oils, that keeps water constantly moving within the chambers providing fuller flavors.
Refined Bell Recycler (RBR) – A popular recycler smoking device developed by Bear Mountain Studios with a deep reservoir, an open base for water flow, and a function that creates a spiral drain.
Reflective – Color of light being reflected.
Refraction Marble – 
Release – 
Reti – 
Reticello – 
Reversal – See “Wigwag”
Ring Perc – See “Halo Perc”
Rig – 
Ripcurn Perc –
Safety Equipment – 
Sand Blasting – See “Sandblasting”
Sandblasting – When an abrasive material like sand is propelled against glass to create etched patterns.
Scientific Glass – 
Sculpting – 
Sherlock – 
Sherlock Bubbler – 
Shifty – 
Shot Hole – 
Shower Head Downstem Diffuser – 
Showerhead Perc – 
Silver Powdered Work – 
Sleek, dossa – 
Sleeving/tubing – 
Slide – 
Slurper Marbles – 
Slurper Pillar – 
Snorkel Carb – 
Soft Glass – 
“Space tech,
space fume” – 
Spinner Cap – 
Spiral / Coil Perc – 
Splash Guard – 
Sponge Perc – 
Spoon – 
Sprinkler Perc – 
Steamroller – 
Stemless – 
Stemless Bubbler – 
Stereo Matrix Perc – 
Stick Stack / Vac Stack – A glassblowing technique for creating colored tubes necessary for linework. Stick stack consists of colored tubes stacked and inserted into a clear tube. Vac stack refers to stacking colored tubes around a clear glass tube to fuse together.
Straight Tube – 
Striking colors – 
Swiss Perc – 
Swiss Pillar –

Tank Plating – 
Tech – 
Terp Marbles / Slurper Marbles – 
Terp Pearl – 
Terp Slurper Banger – 
Terpometer / Temperature Tools – 
Thermal Banger – 
Thumbies – 
Thumbprint – 
Titanium Nail – 
Torch – 
Transmitted – 
Tree/Dome Perc – 
Trophy Perc – 
Turbine Perc – 
Twisties – 
Two Hole – 
Uber – A term that describes the largest tube thickness size. For example, A Standard joint is 1.8mm, Bistabil is 2.8mm, Uber is 4.0mm tubing.
UFO Perc – A type of percolator that is a specific variation of the Showerhead Percolator crafted to resemble the shape of UFO’s. Also see “Showerhead Perc”
Uptake – ?
UV Reactive Glass – A type of glass that illuminates while under a blacklight.
UV Reticello – Italian, (“glass with a small network”) A type of blown glass made with canes organized in a crisscross pattern to form a fine net, which may contain tiny air traps.
Vac Stacks –
Waffle Perc – A type of percolator that uses patterned holes for diffusion and resembles a waffle shape.
Water Pipe – See “Waterpipe”
Waterpipe – A type of smoking device that comes in a variety of shapes, styles, and sizes, and has a smoke filtration using water within the chambers of the pipe.
Wig Wag – See “Wigwag”
Wigwag – A term that describes spiral patterns that are colorful, striped, and wavy.
Window – A glassblowing pattern technique that involves one worked section behind or inside another, resulting in an optical effect and used to convey depth.
Worked – A term to describe a section of glass that has colors or patterns.
Zobello Perc – Exclusive to the Zob line of waterpipes, these percolators contain rings that wrap around the inside of the glass and push smoke through holes in the ring facing inward towards the bottom chamber.